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3rd World Congress on Virology and Diseases Control, will be organized around the theme “”
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Virology is one of the scientific branches in the field of biology; majorly it deals with the viruses and viral diseases, Biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects these subjects are helping to conceptualize the virology. It mainly focuses on the following aspects of viruses. their classification, structure, and evolution, how the virus infects and exploit host cells for reproduction, it also deals with interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases that cause, different techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology is considered to be a sub branch of microbiology or of medicine.
Molecular virology mainly refers to the study of the virus at the molecular level in the microbial, plant and animal cells By using different analyses of genes and gene products of viruses and study their interactions of these host cells and viruses. Structural Virology is that f -replicating organisms. Even though individually viruses are rather simple, as a gaggle they're exceptionally diverse in both replication strategies and structures. Many viruses are important human pathogens.
To study the virus life cycle in humans, we use various technologies like X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy. We investigate macromolecular interactions related to virus cell entry, genome replication, assembly, and maturation. Viruses are very simple enough that we will aspire to know their biology at a molecular level. Our efforts are directed towards using structural information for the event of anti-viral drugs the molecular mechanism employed by viruses to invade host cells establishes an infection and makes sure that progeny virus particles are released into the environment, all while evading the host's immune defenses. Viruses are the smallest cells and vaccines
Viruses are smaller and simpler in construction than unicellular microorganisms, and they contain only one type of nucleic acid—either DNA or RNA—never both. As viruses don't have ribosomes, mitochondria, or other organelles, they are completely dependent on their cellular hosts for energy production and protein synthesis. Viruses replicate only within cells of the host that they infect. Animal virology developed largely from the necessity to regulate viral diseases in humans and their domesticated animals. Viruses, like other infectious agents, enter the animal body through one among its surfaces. They then spread either locally on one of the body surfaces or through lymphatic and blood vessels to produce systemic infection. Iridoviridae and African Swine Fever Virus, adenovirus, Papillomavirus and Polyomavirus, herpesvirus are a number of the main viruses causing diseases in cattle. At least one major disease of every animal species except sheep is affected by a herpesvirus, including such important diseases as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and Marek's disease. However, there are several approaches to their prevention, control, and eradication. The most commonly useful control measure is the use of vaccines.
Diagnostic virology is rapidly growing into the mainstream of clinical medicine as a result of the convergence of several independent developments. First, dramatic progress in antiviral therapeutics has increased the need for specific viral diagnoses. Second, technological advancements particularly in the area of nucleic acid chemistry, have provided important new tools for viral diagnosis. Third, the number of patients at risk for opportunistic viral infections has expanded greatly as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Finally, modern disease management of HIV infection and hepatitis C is providing a new paradigm for the integration of molecular techniques into the management of chronic viral infections. These developments are not only increase the use of diagnostic virology but are reshaping the field. The purpose of this article is to review the field of diagnostic virology at the beginning of the 21st century, to provide guidance about current use of the tools of diagnostic virology, and to provide a glimpse of important future developments.
Currently, viral immunology is a quickly growing field that has exclusively covered all aspects of human and animal viral immunology, including research and development of viral vaccines, immunological characterization of viral components, virus infection immunity, virus-based immunological diseases, immunopathogenic mechanisms, viral immunological diagnoses and methods, and immunology with tumor viruses. The interactions between viruses and therefore the hosts they infect are multifactorial. In this special issue of Cellular and Molecular .
- Viral Infections
- Viral Antigens
- Auto Immunity
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known as suppresses or stops the growth of the retroviral infections in the body use these Antiretroviral drugs (ARD).ART is recommended for everyone who has HIV. People with HIV should start ART as soon as possible. ART can’t cure HIV, but HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. ART also reduces the risk of HIV transmission.
Early HIV infection is that the period up to six months after infection with HIV. During early HIV infection, the extent of disease within the body (called the viral load) is usually very high. A high viral load damages the system and increases the danger of HIV transmission. ART is a crucial part of staying healthy with HIV. Many Studies suggest that these benefits begin even when ART is started during early HIV infection. In addition, during early HIV infection starting ART can reduce the danger of HIV transmission.
Coronaviruses consist a large family of viruses that cause respiratory and intestinal infections in animals and humans, including the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and SARS. SARS first appeared in Guangdong territory, China, causing the 2002–2003 epidemic. The virus spread rapidly among humans, affecting ~8,000 individuals in more than 30 countries and causing the death of ~800 patients. both SARS and MERS coronaviruses likely originated in bats and have been transmitted directly to humans from dromedary camels market civets.
Since mid-December 2019, there are several cases of a pneumonia-like disease (with symptoms including fever, difficulty in breathing, cough and invasive lesions on both lungs) of unknown cause have emerged in the central Chinese city of Wuhan (WHO). Chinese authorities made a preliminary determination that the causative agent is a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and other respiratory pathogens have been ruled out as the cause (WHO). A consortium of researchers, government agencies and institutes released six sequences of the coronavirus associated with the outbreak in Wuhan on virological.org and on Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the new virus clusters with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronavirus clade, and the virus has since been isolated.
New drugs have evolved the treatment of viral infections, in particular, HIV — in the past two decades, a new class of antiviral drugs known as HIV protease inhibitors revolutionized the treatment of HIV infection. Variation in drug pharmacokinetics can pose a major challenge to the optimal use of drugs for HIV in different patient populations. Antiretroviral agents are well known for their susceptibility to drug–drug interactions, a narrow therapeutic range and wide interpatient variability. Combating viral diseases with vaccines or antiviral drugs, or both, is a constant challenge. Even the successful strategies are discovered and employed, the high rate of genetic variations exhibited by many viruses, particularly RNA viruses, often enables drug resistance or vaccine escape .This is compounded by the periodic emergence of new viral pathogens. Therefore, the continued search for new antiviral approaches is a noble cause that is critical for global human health.
Vaccines that are developed from viruses are viral vaccines. Viral vaccines contain either inactivated viruses or attenuated viruses. One of the most common examples of viral vaccines is MMR (mumps, measles, and rubella) vaccines. Inactivated or killed viral vaccines contain viruses, which have to disable their ability to replicate and in turn cause disease. Some people worry that vaccines aren't safe and should be harmful, especially for children . They may ask their health care provider to attend or maybe choose to not have the vaccine. But the advantages of vaccines far outweigh their risks.